Managing Sanctions-Related Risk in Venezuela: State-Owned Enterprises, Corruption, Narcotrafficking, and Beyond

The US, EU, and other nations have stepped up sanctions pressure on Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro and his inner circle for engaging in human rights abuses, political repression, widespread public corruption, and narcotics trafficking at the highest levels of government. This review demonstrates several common typologies of Venezuela sanctions-related risk through a series of case studies that help inform effective decision-making and risk control frameworks.